Wetlands are the ecosystem that exists between the land, and bodies of water such as rivers, lakes, and oceans. To be considered a wetland there must be a sufficient level of shallow water between the main body of water and the shore each year to support aquatic plants. Wetlands provide two critical functions in relation to Climate Change, they act as a natural carbon sink, sequestering harmful CO2. They also act as a natural water regulator, absorbing excess water during a flood, then when the water table begins to fall, such as in a drought, the wetlands naturally release water back into the aquifer. Since 1900 one half of the wetlands in the world have been lost due to human activity.
Wetlands are also a valuable source of natural water purification, and a reservoir of biodiversity. They are critical fish habitat, many spices of both fresh and saltwater fish spends part of its lifecycle in a wetland environment. The wetlands along rivers and coastal areas act as natural buffers during severe storms, enabling vast amounts of water to spread out over a wide area. The human desire to build closer to the shoreline and to control the rivers and coasts with manmade levies and diversion channels has proven to be problematic especially in the face of increasingly severe weather.